Chicago Cubs (goat) noun – a former baseball team

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Study Calls for Standardization in Measuring Testosterone Levels

New York, NY (PRWEB) March 06, 2014

Testosterone blood tests, long questioned as being unreliable, should be used in conjunction with a physical exam to determine treatment

While the number of men in the United States diagnosed with low testosterone has increased considerably over the last decade, a team of experts, led by Dr. Darius A. Paduch from NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center, has found that relying on a blood test alone is an insufficient method of diagnosing the condition.

The largest review and analysis of its kind on published data from more than 10,000 patients appears online today at and will be in the May issue of Urology. The initiative was spearheaded by the American Urological Association (AUA) and was conducted by a panel of physicians representing six major U.S. institutions.

Despite advances in technology, inconsistent laboratory practices, among other issues, leads to unreliable blood test results. In some cases, testosterone (T) levels, tested on the same day from a blood sample taken from a single patient, differed by as much 30 percent from one lab to the next, says the studys lead author, Dr. Paduch, a urologist and male sexual medicine specialist at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center and associate professor of urology and reproductive medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College.

Given the result of the review, Dr. Paduch notes that a stringent reliance on blood test results alone can lead to both under- and overtreatment of low testosterone levels in men, also known as hypogonadism. Instead, he notes, the data demonstrate that its critical to primarily focus on treating the patient and his symptoms, while using the T level from a blood test as a secondary guideline. Symptoms may include fatigue, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction.

Low testosterone has often been thought of as a condition affecting men age 65 and older. But the incidence of diabetes and obesity in younger men, conditions that are also associated with low testosterone, has led to an increase in its diagnosis. Of note, testosterone therapy may help with diabetes and weight control for some men.

The medical community has long questioned the reliability of blood tests to diagnose hypogonadism. What makes these latest findings significant are the stringent criteria used for the study, which included an exhaustive review of hundreds of papers, as well as input from a large multidisciplinary team of medical professional societies and clinical experts from diverse fields and representatives from government agencies and medical equipment manufacturers.

Although variable blood test results can be attributed to a host of factors, one of the biggest problems the study uncovered is a lack of consistency in laboratory practices from collecting and storing blood samples to using different methods to analyze the results. To address these concerns, Dr. Paduch advises doctors and other health care providers to insist on labs that follow standardized guidelines for testosterone testing issued by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Dr. Paduch and his colleagues would also like to see testing standards for testosterone that are comparable to those for the hemoglobin A1C test, which provides information about a persons average levels of blood glucose to diagnose diabetes. Since the A1C test has been standardized throughout the U.S. and Europe, the same result can be easily replicated, says Dr. Paduch.

Dr. Paduch and his colleagues are working with the CDC to establish evidence-based T-level norms, another challenge associated with diagnosing low testosterone.

Study co-authors include Robert E Brannigan, Eugene F. Fuchs, Edward D. Kim, Joel L. Marmar and Jay I. Sandlow.

NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center

NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center, located in New York City, is one of the leading academic medical centers in the world, comprising the teaching hospital NewYork-Presbyterian and Weill Cornell Medical College, the medical school of Cornell University. NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell provides state-of-the-art inpatient, ambulatory and preventive care in all areas of medicine, and is committed to excellence in patient care, education, research and community service. Weill Cornell physician-scientists have been responsible for many medical advances including the development of the Pap test for cervical cancer; the synthesis of penicillin; the first successful embryo-biopsy pregnancy and birth in the U.S.; the first clinical trial for gene therapy for Parkinsons disease; the first indication of bone marrows critical role in tumor growth; and, most recently, the worlds first successful use of deep brain stimulation to treat a minimally conscious brain-injured patient. NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital also comprises NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center, NewYork-Presbyterian/Morgan Stanley Childrens Hospital, NewYork-Presbyterian/Westchester Division, NewYork-Presbyterian/The Allen Hospital, and NewYork-Presbyterian/Lower Manhattan Hospital. NewYork-Presbyterian is the #1 hospital in the New York metropolitan area and is consistently ranked among the best academic medical institutions in the nation, according to U.S.News & World Report. Weill Cornell Medical College is the first U.S. medical college to offer a medical degree overseas and maintains a strong global presence in Austria, Brazil, Haiti, Tanzania, Turkey and Qatar. For more information, visit and

Weill Cornell Medical College

Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell Universitys medical school located in New York City, is committed to excellence in research, teaching, patient care and the advancement of the art and science of medicine, locally, nationally and globally. Physicians and scientists of Weill Cornell Medical College are engaged in cutting-edge research from bench to bedside, aimed at unlocking mysteries of the human body in health and sickness and toward developing new treatments and prevention strategies. In its commitment to global health and education, Weill Cornell has a strong presence in places such as Qatar, Tanzania, Haiti, Brazil, Austria and Turkey. Through the historic Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, the Medical College is the first in the U.S. to offer its M.D. degree overseas. Weill Cornell is the birthplace of many medical advances including the development of the Pap test for cervical cancer, the synthesis of penicillin, the first successful embryo-biopsy pregnancy and birth in the U.S., the first clinical trial of gene therapy for Parkinsons disease, and most recently, the worlds first successful use of deep brain stimulation to treat a minimally conscious brain-injured patient. Weill Cornell Medical College is affiliated with NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, where its faculty provides comprehensive patient care at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center. The Medical College is also affiliated with Houston Methodist. For more information, visit

About the American Urological Association: Founded in 1902 and headquartered near Baltimore, Maryland, the American Urological Association is a leading advocate for the specialty of urology, and has more than 20,000 members throughout the world. The AUA is a premier urologic association, providing invaluable support to the urologic community as it pursues its mission of fostering the highest standards of urologic care through education, research and the formulation of health policy.


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Rochester, NY (PRWEB) February 03, 2014

According to the U.S. Surgeon General, smoking-related diseases will lead to the premature deaths of half a million adults in 2014In addition, researchers newly confirmed smoking as a cause of more than a dozen types of cancer, including liver cancer and colorectal cancer, and a host of other health problems, including Type 2 diabetes, erectile dysfunction, rheumatoid arthritis and a variety of immune-system disorders. (1). Research shows that some cancers linked to smoking are also linked to the reactivation of the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). These studies have also shown that smoking harms the immune system, which allows the reactivation of EBV. One study found that Smoking was the only factor linked to EBV seropositivity among the expanded control group and the independent low-risk population. In vitro experiments showed that cigarette smoke extract promoted EBV replication, induced the expression of the immediate-early transcriptional activators Zta and Rta, and increased transcriptional expression levels of BFRF3 and gp350 in the lytic phase. (See the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, from September 19, 2012) (2). Thus, the latent Epstein Barr Virus may be the underlying cause of some smoking related cancers, such as Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC).

How do scientists know that smoking can cause the EBV to reactivate?

Smoking harms the immune system, which keeps it from suppressing the latent EBV. The Journal of the National Cancer Institute study authors wrote that We verified that cigarette smoking and elevated VCA-IgA antibodies were both associated with NPC risk (2). Thus, in NPC carcinogenesis, cigarette smoking may play an alternative role via induction of EBV reactivation (2).

Cigarette smoking produces several reactive forms of agents, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, and N-nitrosamines, resulting in the formation of DNA adducts, which cause DNA damage (2). These chemicals are associated with seropositivity of EBV. Study authors wrote further that there has been a consistent trend showing a link between cigarette smoking and EBV-positivity in NPC or Hodgkin lymphoma patients (2).

In addition to reactivating the EBV, which leads to some forms of cancer, smoking can also keep the immune system from fighting other disease causing organisms. For example, effects of tobacco smoke on the immune system include: Greater susceptibility to infections such as pneumonia and influenza, more severe and longer-lasting illnesses, and lower levels of protective antioxidants (such as vitamin C), in the blood. (See, last reviewed May 2013) (3).

Its very important for individuals to realize that smoking has many harmful effects. Reactivating the Epstein Barr Virus is one of them. The reactivated virus is linked to multiple cancers, and thus the Center urges people to cease smoking. In addition, people should consider taking a natural supplement designed to target the latent EBV virus, and therefore provide some protection against the damages of smoking. Greg Bennett, CBCD.

The CBCD recommends that individuals turn to the CBCDs website at for a better understanding of the risks posed by the latent EBV.


(1) US explores tobaccos endgame, as report lists new known harms. Published on January 17, 2014.

(2) An epidemiological and molecular study of the relationship between smoking, risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Epstein-Barr virus activation. Published on September 19, 2012.

(3) Better Health Channel – Smoking – Effects on Your Body. Last reviewed on May 2013.

The CBCD is a research center recognized by the IRS as a 501(c)(3) non-for-profit organization. The mission of the CBCD is to advance the research on the biology of chronic diseases, and to accelerate the discovery of treatments.

The CBCD published the Purple book by Dr. Hanan Polansky. The book presents Dr. Polanskys highly acclaimed scientific theory on the relationship between foreign DNA and the onset of chronic diseases. Dr. Polanskys book is available as a free download from the CBCD website.

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